Int. M. of Hutnan Re. resource Management 18: 4 04 2006 580-601 ^ ^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^
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A typology of worldwide human resource management approaches and techniques
Michael Dickmann and Michael jordan MUller-Camen
Abstract This conventional paper develops a framework of international hrm (lHRM) that moves bcyotid strategy and structtire to pay attention to proces. syns. The benefits of 6 case studies of large A language like german multinational corporations in three countries demonstrate different conligurations of IHRM strategies and policies. Worldwide knowledge moves and skill varied in intensity, articles, direction and tiiechanistiis employed. With 'cognofederate' IHRM 1 type was identified which was hitherto neglected. Keywords Foreign human resource management; international corporations; technique; processes; dexterity.
Intruductinn: The search for competitive advantage The search for the elements of intetnational competitive benefits has been a dominant theme in the management books ofthe previous decades. In the 1960s, Perltnutter (1969) presented inliuetitial ideas on the international alignment of managers. One of his types, geocentrism. balances dotiiestic and international tensions. Even if it is po. ssible being sitnultaneously internationally efficient and locally receptive, this does not on its own make a multinational company (MNC) successful. Instead, many authors include identified creativity as one key to corporate success (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1989; Hedlund and Rolander, 1990; Porter, 198. 'S; Pucik. 1992). The ideas of competitive strategies aitiiing by responsiveness, efficiency and innovation have been placed on the sphere of internalional hutnan resource management IHRM). A number of creators (e. g.. Adler and Ghadar. 1990; Schuler and Jackson, 1987) have asserted that the underlying dimensions deciding business approach and composition can also be used in IHRM. Presented the importance of IHRM. it really is surprising that lelatively few studies possess attempted to assess the IHRM configuration settings of around the world operating businesses. Harzing's (2000) review of main research in to typologies of MNCs discovers that the main analyses were of tactics and structures. Among the ones that do eover HRM. the. studies by Perlmutter (1969) and Adler and Ghadar (1990) happen to be conceptual and, therefore , lack empirical verification. Bartlett and Ghoshal (1989) outline nine cases but the characteristics with their four configurations are talked about unsystematically (Dickmann. 1999; Harzing, 2000). While detailed studies have come about about HRM policies and practices of MNCs originating in piirticular countties (Femer ainsi que ai, 2(K)1; Festing, 1997; Kopp, 1994) or operating in specific host environments (Femer et ai. Miehael Dickmann, Cranfield University or college, Sehool of Management, Command and Business, Cranfteld. Bedford MK43 OAL. UK (tel: +44 - MM 751122: e-mail: Meters. DickmannВ® cranlield. ac. uk: Michael Muller-Camcn. Middlesex College or university Business School. The Burroughs, London NW4 4BT. UK (tel: +44 20 8411 5241; email: M. [email protected] ac. uk). The Inteniaiioiiat Journal of Human Ri-sourre Management ISSN 0958-5192 prini/lSSN 14(i6-4. 1W. mline ur;
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Dickmann and Miiller-Camen: IHRM. strategies and processes
employees and HR plans. All six case businesses were in ihe DEUTSCHER AKTIENINDEX stock market index of the biggest 30 German born listed businesses. " 5. Each organization has signilicuntly increased its internatinna! functions in the past 2 decades, which has generated a much higher percentage ol foreign staff in relation to total employees. Most companies were striicUired over the M-form and had several many years of experience of foreign functions. This designed they had time to evolve since international businesses and to reline iheir...