Methadone and It’s Effectiveness Essay



Methadone occupies a position of huge dominance in medicine misuse treatment to date. It truly is estimated you will discover around 600, 000 dubious drug users receiving treatment globally (WHO 2008). Traditionally it was the first form of opioid replacement therapy and has been the most trusted form in the usa, Europe and Australia (Ward et al 1998). The latest figures for Scotland present approximately twenty-two, 224 people are receiving methadone for drug misuse (Scottish Exec 2007). The effectiveness of methadone treatment is however inhibited by some critics. This kind of paper aims to describe methadone intervention treatment, look at the evidence surrounding it and go over its success. For the purpose of this kind of essay a history and treatment goals of methadone will be identified. The paper will then go on to discuss 4 key areas of issue in treatment, namely:

Lowering of criminal activity

Dosage of prescribed heroin.

Methadone maintenance treatment and HIV, Her zaman B and C.

Support services.

Finally an understanding of all of the proof presented inside the paper will probably be given plus the future for methadone in drug wrong use treatment discussed.


In america in the early on 1960's Dole and Nyswander introduced orally administered routine service doses in the synthetic opioid methadone like a drug replacement treatment pertaining to opioid dependence. The main aims of the introduction of this treatment were to reduce dubious drug make use of and lawbreaker acts. The procedure was created for proven opiate addicts and was based on the main that, extented opiate employ caused particular physiological improvements within the body system which essential effective treatment indefinitely (Ward et approach 1998). The fundamental aspect of methadone treatment is that it blocked any impact the intake of heroin would trigger and the person would neglect to experience the zest effects. Anybody would in effect be able to function ‘normally on a day to day basis'. Methadone treatment provided a legal and managed supply of a great opioid medicine which needed to be taken only once a day because its extended duration of actions eliminated disengagement symptoms intended for 24 to 36 several hours. Relatively high doses of 80mg each day were thought necessary to achieve this. This dosage was consequently prescribed on the long term basis with no intention that people should attempt to reduce. The patient then had the opportunity to boost his/her social functioning by taking part in various psychotherapy and rehabilitation companies which produced an essential portion of the programme. (Dole and Nyswander 1967).

In the united kingdom, the 1980's brought methadone treatment to the fore. It was in response for the rise of HIV illness amongst the injecting drug misusing population. Methadone was seen as an important vehicle for shifting heroin users away from the dangers of injecting (ACMD 1988). It was presented as part of a harm lowering strategy to stop the spread of HIV and AIDS (Seivewright 2000).


Considering that the 1960's there is a proliferation of variations on the basic Dole & Nyswander type of methadone repair. The company and dangerous treatment varies widely, with explicit guidelines for program operation in the usa and Sydney and a virtual lack of structure and regulation in Britain (Farrell et al 1994).

Treatments goals of several programmes possess shifted via harm reduction and long-term maintenance toward achieving disuse from almost all opioid medicines including methadone within a several years (Seivewright 2000). Indeed The Scottish Government's Review of Methadone in Drug Treatment 2007 explained:

" we believe absolutely in which who is on a [drug] system should consent to move coming from a medicine dependent lifestyle to a drug free lifestyle”.

This kind of treatment unit which is currently widespread in britain today is essentially based on the...

References: Prediction Council around the Misuse of Drugs (1998) HELPS and drug misuse, Component 1 . Birmingham: HMSO.

Admonitory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (2000) Reducing drug related deaths. London, uk: HMSO.

Ball, L

Boudouris, L (1976) Criminality and Addiction. The International Journal of Addiction, Vol11, pp. 951-966.

Bulletin Globe Health Business (2008), Mar Vol. 86(3).

Coid, L., Carvell, A., Kittler, Unces., et approach (2000) Opiates, Criminal Behavior and Methadone Treatment. London, uk: Home Office

Does treatment work? (2005) [Online]

Dole, V. G., Nyswander (1965) A medical therapy for diacetylmorphine (heroin) habit. Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 193, pp 80-84.

Little, V. P., Nyswander, Meters. E. (1967) Heroin habit - a metabolic disease. Archives of Internal Medication, Vol. one hundred twenty, 19-24.

Farrell, M, Ward, J, Mattick, R, ainsi que all. (1994) Methadone repair treatment in opiate dependence: a review. United kingdom Medical Record, Vol 6, pp. 997-1001.

Gossop, M. and Offer, M. (1991). A 6 country survey of the content material and composition of heroin treatment programs using methadone. British Journal of Addiction. Vol. eighty six, pp. 1151 - 1160.

McLellan, IN, Arndt, IO, Metzger, DS, et ing. (1993). The consequences of psychosocial providers in substance abuse treatment. Diary of the American Medical Connection, Vol. 269, pp1953-9.

Schuster, C. 3rd there’s r. (1989) Methadone maintenance: A satisfactory dose is important in checking the spread of AIDS. National Institute upon Drug Abuse, Vol 4 (2), pp. 3- 33.

Seivewright, N. (2000) Community remedying of drug misuse: more than methadone. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge.

Scottish Executive (2007) Review of Methadone in Drug Treatment. Edinburgh: The Scottish Business. (2007)

Scottish Professional (2000) Tackling Drugs in Scotland: Protecting our Upcoming, Edinburgh: The Scottish Exec.

Ward, L, Mattick, R, Hall, W (1992) Crucial issues in Methadone Repair Treatment. Quotes: New South Wales University or college Press T

Ward, L., Mattick, R., Hall, T


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